The word "allergy" was first used by Clemens von Pirquet in 1906.
Allergic diseases- Allergic rhinitis, Bronchial asthma, Atopic dermatitis and Urticaria are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.Allergic diseases- Allergic rhinitis, Bronchial asthma, Atopic dermatitis and Urticaria are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Symptoms- may include red, watery eyes, running, blocked, itchy nose, sneezing, dry spasmodic cough( more so in the night), shortness of breath, choking chest, an itchy rash on the skin, or swelling with redness.
Common allergens include pollens, weeds, danders, insects, paper dust, hay dust, house dust, house dust mite, cockroach, insects and certain foods, drugs, moulds etc.
The underlying mechanism- involves immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), part of the body's immune system, binding to an allergen and then to a receptor on mast cells or basophils where it triggers the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine, serotonin and leukotrienes.
Diagnosis- is typically based on a person's classical medical history. SPT-skin prick tests to identify the culprit –an offending allergen. Blood test- Elisa, RAST –where SPT can't be tested.
Treatments– For allergies include avoiding known allergens and the use of medications such as antihistamines and steroids.
In severe reactions, injectable adrenaline (epinephrine) is recommended.
It gradually exposes people to larger and larger amounts of allergens over a definite period of time in a definite fashion when a stage is reached when the body does not react to the said allergen.